Anonymizers and Remailers !! What n How
Anonymizers are online services that eliminate the trail of information that you leave behind, whilst surfing, so that your online activities cannot be traced back to you. The anonymizers vary in sophistication depending on the level of security and number of features that you require. Some anonymizers require the use of client software and others only require that you log onto their website before browsing other sites*.
How do Anonymizers work?
You essentially surf the Web through the anonymizer site, going to that site first and then routing all your pages from there. When you send a page request through the anonymizer, it acts like a super-proxy server, stripping off the header of each data packet, thus making your request anonymous. The requested page is then fed through the anonymizer back to your Web browser**.
In order to avoid being tracked, one can use an anonymous proxy to surf the web. An anonymous proxy makes sure your IP address does not get stored on the web server logs. Web servers log every ?GET? request made, together with date, hour, and IP. But if you are accessing the Internet through a proxy server, then the IP of the proxy is logged and not yours.
In case you do not go through an anonymous proxy, then you are actually risking vital information that belongs to you. For example, a hacker can easily find out your IP Address, your web browser, your Operating System and even the previous URL that you have visited. You can also be easily located geographically (provided one has the necessary software tools) because people can find out a whole lot of things that give your location. Like your hostname, your continent, your country, your city and even your Internet Service Provider.
Consider the scenario where a hacker gets access to your computer, he can find out your name, email address, telephone number, various user ID's and passwords, details about software you use and your preferences, locations of files and folders, the search strings that you used and literally hundreds of other personal things. All this information is stored in files like SYSTEM.ini, USER.dat, SYSTEM.dat etc. One very important file is the nsform??.TMP which stores all the data inside every Netscape form you've ever submitted, with and without SSL, when the submission failed or was cancelled.
What are Re-mailers?
Anonymous Re-mailers are services used to send e-mail messages, so that the recipient of the e-mail cannot determine the identity of the sender. Re-mailers strip off header information leading to the identity of the sender and often route a message through a chain of re-mailers before reaching the recipient. Many re-mailers also include some sort of message based encryption. Re-mailers are commonly used to protect the anonymity if the sender from the recipient, to prevent eavesdropping by a third party, or to post anonymously to newsgroups*.
How do Re-mailers Work?
An anonymous re-mailer is simply a computer connected to the Internet that forwards electronic mail or files to other addresses on the network. It also strips off the "header" part of the messages, which shows where they came from and who sent them. All the receiver can tell about a message's origin is that it passed through the re-mailer. Some re-mailers also allocate each sender an "anonymous ID", rather like a PO Box number, which it stores with the sender's address so that any replies reach them.***
All re-mailers are fairly effective at what they do and some even take an extra step and add encryption to all outgoing messages. In order to view header information sent via email messages in Outlook Express, select a message in your inbox, then select File | Properties | Details.
To view header information in m*c*s*t Outlook, right-click a message in your inbox and select Options; the header information is displayed in the Internet Headers area of the Message Options dialog box.
Anonymous re-mailers were invented by security experts interested to know whether it was possible to send a message on the Internet which could not be traced back to its source. As soon as the first ones were built, though, people found a more pragmatic use for them: to send messages to bulletin boards about subjects so sensitive that they did not want their names known.
Clear BIOS Password, All tricks !
**** New Trick **** :
At command prompt type debug
you will get a - prompt where you can type the fallowing ( means hit enter, not type enter*)
just hit enter on this line
Basic BIOS password crack - works 9.9 times out of ten
This is a password hack but it clears the BIOS such that the next time you start the PC, the CMOS does not ask for any password. Now if you are able to bring the DOS prompt up, then you will be able to change the BIOS setting to the default. To clear the CMOS do the following:
Get DOS prompt and type:
DEBUG hit enter
-o 70 2e hit enter
-o 71 ff hit enter
-q hit enter
exit hit enter
Restart the computer. It works on most versions of the AWARD BIOS.
Accessing information on the hard disk
When you turn on the host machine, enter the CMOS setup menu (usually you have to press F2, or DEL, or CTRL+ALT+S during the boot sequence) and go to STANDARD CMOS SETUP, and set the channel to which you have put the hard disk as TYPE=Auto, MODE=AUTO, then SAVE & EXIT SETUP. Now you have access to the hard disk.
Standard BIOS backdoor passwords
The first, less invasive, attempt to bypass a BIOS password is to try on of these standard manufacturer's backdoor passwords:
AWARD SW, AWARD_SW, Award SW, AWARD PW, _award, awkward, J64, j256, j262, j332, j322, 01322222, 589589, 589721, 595595, 598598, HLT, SER, SKY_FOX, aLLy, aLLY, Condo, CONCAT, TTPTHA, aPAf, HLT, KDD, ZBAAACA, ZAAADA, ZJAAADC, djonet, %øåñòü ïpîáåëîâ%, %äåâÿòü ïpîáåëîâ%
AMI, A.M.I., AMI SW, AMI_SW, BIOS, PASSWORD, HEWITT RAND, Oder
Other passwords you may try (for AMI/AWARD or other BIOSes)
LKWPETER, lkwpeter, BIOSTAR, biostar, BIOSSTAR, biosstar, ALFAROME, Syxz, Wodj
Note that the key associated to "_" in the US keyboard corresponds to "?" in some European keyboards (such as Italian and German ones), so -- for example -- you should type AWARD?SW when using those keyboards. Also remember that passwords are Case Sensitive. The last two passwords in the AWARD BIOS list are in Russian.
Flashing BIOS via software
If you have access to the computer when it's turned on, you could try one of those programs that remove the password from the BIOS, by invalidating its memory.
However, it might happen you don't have one of those programs when you have access to the computer, so you'd better learn how to do manually what they do. You can reset the BIOS to its default values using the MS-DOS tool DEBUG (type DEBUG at the command prompt. You'd better do it in pure MS-DOS mode, not from a MS-DOS shell window in Windows). Once you are in the debug environment enter the following commands:
O 70 17
O 71 17
O 70 FF
O 71 17
Invalidates CMOS RAM.
Should work on all AT motherboards
(XT motherboards don't have CMOS)
O 70 2E
O 71 FF
Note that the first letter is a "O" not the number "0". The numbers which follow are two bytes in hex format.
Flashing BIOS via hardware
If you can't access the computer when it's on, and the standard backdoor passwords didn't work, you'll have to flash the BIOS via hardware. Please read the important notes at the end of this section before to try any of these methods.
Using the jumpers
The canonical way to flash the BIOS via hardware is to plug, unplug, or switch a jumper on the motherboard (for "switching a jumper" I mean that you find a jumper that joins the central pin and a side pin of a group of three pins, you should then unplug the jumper and then plug it to the central pin and to the pin on the opposite side, so if the jumper is normally on position 1-2, you have to put it on position 2-3, or vice versa). This jumper is not always located near to the BIOS, but could be anywhere on the motherboard.
To find the correct jumper you should read the motherboard's manual.
Once you've located the correct jumper, switch it (or plug or unplug it, depending from what the manual says) while the computer is turned OFF. Wait a couple of seconds then put the jumper back to its original position. In some motherboards it may happen that the computer will automatically turn itself on, after flashing the BIOS. In this case, turn it off, and put the jumper back to its original position, then turn it on again. Other motherboards require you turn the computer on for a few seconds to flash the BIOS.
If you don't have the motherboard's manual, you'll have to "brute force" it... trying out all the jumpers. In this case, try first the isolated ones (not in a group), the ones near to the BIOS, and the ones you can switch (as I explained before). If all them fail, try all the others. However, you must modify the status of only one jumper per attempt, otherwise you could damage the motherboard (since you don't know what the jumper you modified is actually meant for). If the password request screen still appear, try another one.
If after flashing the BIOS, the computer won't boot when you turn it on, turn it off, and wait some seconds before to retry.
Removing the battery
If you can't find the jumper to flash the BIOS or if such jumper doesn't exist, you can remove the battery that keeps the BIOS memory alive. It's a button-size battery somewhere on the motherboard (on elder computers the battery could be a small, typically blue, cylinder soldered to the motherboard, but usually has a jumper on its side to disconnect it, otherwise you'll have to unsolder it and then solder it back). Take it away for 15-30 minutes or more, then put it back and the data contained into the BIOS memory should be volatilized. I'd suggest you to remove it for about one hour to be sure, because if you put it back when the data aren't erased yet you'll have to wait more time, as you've never removed it. If at first it doesn't work, try to remove the battery overnight.
Important note: in laptop and notebooks you don't have to remove the computer's power batteries (which would be useless), but you should open your computer and remove the CMOS battery from the motherboard.
Short-circuiting the chip
Another way to clear the CMOS RAM is to reset it by short circuiting two pins of the BIOS chip for a few seconds. You can do that with a small piece of electric wire or with a bent paper clip. Always make sure that the computer is turned OFF before to try this operation.
Here is a list of EPROM chips that are commonly used in the BIOS industry. You may find similar chips with different names if they are compatible chips made by another brand. If you find the BIOS chip you are working on matches with one of the following you can try to short-circuit the appropriate pins. Be careful, because this operation may damage the chip.
CHIPS P82C206 (square)
Short together pins 12 and 32 (the first and the last pins on the bottom edge of the chip) or pins 74 and 75 (the two pins on the upper left corner).
5v 75--| |
| CHIPS |
1 * | |
| P82C206 |
| gnd | 5v
OPTi F82C206 (rectangular)
Short together pins 3 and 26 (third pin from left side and fifth pin from right side on the bottom edge).
81 -| |- 50
| OPTi |
| F82C206 |
|| | |
1 || | | 30
Dallas DS1287, DS1287A
Benchmarq bp3287MT, bq3287AMT
The Dallas DS1287 and DS1287A, and the compatible Benchmarq bp3287MT and bq3287AMT chips have a built-in battery. This battery should last up to ten years. Any motherboard using these chips should not have an additional battery (this means you can't flash the BIOS by removing a battery). When the battery fails, the RTC chip would be replaced.
CMOS RAM can be cleared on the 1287A and 3287AMT chips by shorting pins 12 and 21.
The 1287 (and 3287MT) differ from the 1287A in that the CMOS RAM can't be cleared. If there is a problem such as a forgotten password, the chip must be replaced. (In this case it is recommended to replace the 1287 with a 1287A). Also the Dallas 12887 and 12887A are similar but contain twice as much CMOS RAM storage.
1 -| * U |- 24 5v
2 -| |- 23
3 -| |- 22
4 -| |- 21 RCL (RAM Clear)
5 -| |- 20
6 -| |- 19
7 -| |- 18
8 -| |- 17
9 -| |- 16
10 -| |- 15
11 -| |- 14
gnd 12 -|__________|- 13
NOTE: Although these are 24-pin chips,
the Dallas chips may be missing 5 pins,
these are unused pins.
Most chips have unused pins,
though usually they are still present.
This is a rectangular 24-pin DIP chip, usually in a socket. The number on the chip should end in 6818.
Although this chip is pin-compatible with the Dallas 1287/1287A, there is no built-in battery.
Short together pins 12 and 24.
24 20 13
| DALLAS |
| DS12885S |
Short pins 12 and 24. These are the pins on diagonally opposite corners - lower left and upper right. You might also try pins 12 and 20.
1 -| * U |- 24 5v
2 -| |- 23
3 -| |- 22
4 -| |- 21
5 -| |- 20
6 -| |- 19
7 -| |- 18
8 -| |- 17
9 -| |- 16
10 -| |- 15
11 -| |- 14
gnd 12 -|__________|- 13
Replacing the chip
If nothing works, you could replace the existing BIOS chip with a new one you can buy from your specialized electronic shop or your computer supplier. It's a quick operation if the chip is inserted on a base and not soldered to the motherboard, otherwise you'll have to unsolder it and then put the new one. In this case would be more convenient to solder a base on which you'll then plug the new chip, in the eventuality that you'll have to change it again. If you can't find the BIOS chip specifically made for your motherboard, you should buy one of the same type (probably one of the ones shown above) and look in your motherboard manufacturer's website to see if there's the BIOS image to download. Then you should copy that image on the chip you bought with an EPROM programmer.
Whether is the method you use, when you flash the BIOS not only the password, but also all the other configuration data will be reset to the factory defaults, so when you are booting for the first time after a BIOS flash, you should enter the CMOS configuration menu (as explained before) and fix up some things.
Also, when you boot Windows, it may happen that it finds some new device, because of the new configuration of the BIOS, in this case you'll probably need the Windows installation CD because Windows may ask you for some external files. If Windows doesn't see the CD-ROM try to eject and re-insert the CD-ROM again. If Windows can't find the CD-ROM drive and you set it properly from the BIOS config, just reboot with the reset key, and in the next run Windows should find it. However most files needed by the system while installing new hardware could also be found in C:WINDOWS, C:WINDOWSSYSTEM, or C:WINDOWSINF .
Key Disk for Toshiba laptops
Some Toshiba notebooks allow to bypass BIOS by inserting a "key-disk" in the floppy disk drive while booting. To create a Toshiba Keydisk, take a 720Kb or 1.44Mb floppy disk, format it (if it's not formatted yet), then use a hex editor such as Hex Workshop to change the first five bytes of the second sector (the one after the boot sector) and set them to 4B 45 59 00 00 (note that the first three bytes are the ASCII for "KEY" followed by two zeroes). Once you have created the key disk put it into the notebook's drive and turn it on, then push the reset button and when asked for password, press Enter. You will be asked to Set Password again. Press Y and Enter. You'll enter the BIOS configuration where you can set a new password.
Key protected cases
A final note about those old computers (up to 486 and early Pentiums) protected with a key that prevented the use of the mouse and the keyboard or the power button. All you have to do with them is to follow the wires connected to the key hole, locate the jumper to which they are connected and unplug it.
Clear Cmos, jumper.That is the way how I solve problem when customer forgets password.
There are a few different ways to reset the cmos, here's a few:
1. there are many default common passwords,
At boot-up note the BIOS provider (Award, AMI, Phoenix, IBM, etc.)
For Award BIOS' try these backdoor passwords:
For AMI BIOS' try these backdoor passwords:
For PHOENIX BIOS' try this backdoor password:
there are too many to count here's a list
(search for PC BIOS)
2. On some older PC's pressing the insert key upon startup will clear
the CMOS, make sure you hold it down till it's done booting.
3. Another way which we pretty much already covered, was to pull the
metallic nickel looking battery that supplies power to the CMOS.
4. Some times there is a small three pin jumper used to reset the bios,
just move the black little pin cover to the opposite two pins.
(Make sure to read the motherboards manual before this)
5. If the battery is soldered in you can take a soldering iron to it but
I don't recommend it unless you are a professional.
6. there are a few programs out on the net which are made to crack
certain types of bios passwords, I have one for award BIOS's here's a
Hacking your School, College
getting over the blocked sites
u can try google translator .. or one proxy which i found intresting was greenpips.com try that or . try this http://22.214.171.124/translate_c?hl=de&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&langpair=de%7Cen&u=http://www.your website.com/ change the last part to the website you like to access
Hacking at school
This tutorial is aimed at school servers running Windows underneath (most of them do). It works definitely with Windows 98, 2000, Me, and XP. never tried it with 95, but it should work anyway. However, schools can stop Batch files from working, but it is very uncommon for them to be that switched on.
There are problems with school servers, and they mostly come back to the basic architecture of the system - so the admins are unlikely to do anything about it! In this article I will discuss how to bypass web filtering software at school, send messages everywhere you want, create admin accounts, modify others' accounts, and generally cause havok. Please note that I ahve refrained from giving away information that will actually screw up your school server, though intelligent thinkers will work it out. THis is because, for god sakes, this is a school! Don't screw them up!
How to get it all moving
An MS-DOS prompt is the best way to do stuff, because most admins don't think its possible to get them and, if they do, they just can't do anything much about it.
First, open a notepad file (if your school blocks notepad, open a webpage, right click and go to view source. hey presto, notepad!). Now, write
and save the file as batch.bat, or anything with the extension .bat . Open this file and it will give you a command prompt:) (for more information on why this works, look to the end of the article). REMEMBER TO DELETE THIS FILE ONCE YOU'VE FINISHED!!! if the admins see it, they will kill you;)
Bypassing that pesky web filtering
Well, now you've got a command prompt, it's time to visit whatever site you want. Now, there are plenty of ways to bypass poorly constructed filtering, but I'm going to take it for granted that your school has stopped these. This one, as far as I know, will never be stopped.
in your command prompt, type
or anything else you wanna visit. Now you should have a load of info, including delay times and, most importantly, an IP address for the website. Simply type this IP address into the address bar, preceded by http://, and you'll be able to access the page!
For example: http://126.96.36.199 etc.
Now, I've noticed a lot of people have been saying that there are other ways to bypass web filtering, and there are. I am only mentioning the best method I know. Others you might want to try are:
1) Using a translator, like Altavista's Babel fish, to translate the page from japanese of something to english. This will bypass the filtering and won't translate the page, since it's already in English.
2) When you search up the site on Google, there will be a link saying 'Cache'. Click that and you should be on.
3) Use a proxy. I recommend Proxify.com. If your school has blocked it, search it up on Google and do the above. Then you can search to your heart's content:)
Sending messages out over the network
Okay, here's how to send crazy messages to everyone in your school on a computer. In your command prompt, type
Net Send * "The server is h4x0r3d"
*Note: may not be necessary, depending on how many your school has access too. If it's just one, you can leave it out*
Where is, replace it with the domain name of your school. For instance, when you log on to the network, you should have a choice of where to log on, either to your school, or to just the local machine. It tends to be called the same as your school, or something like it. So, at my school, I use
Net Send Varndean * "The server is h4x0r3d"
The asterisk denotes wildcard sending, or sending to every computer in the domain. You can swap this for people's accounts, for example
NetSend Varndean dan,jimmy,admin "The server is h4x0r3d"
use commas to divide the names and NO SPACES between them.
Adding/modifying user accounts
Now that you have a command prompt, you can add a new user (ie yourself) like so
C:>net user username /ADD
where username is the name of your new account. And remember, try and make it look inconspicuous, then they'll just think its a student who really is at school, when really, the person doesn't EXIST! IF you wanna have a password, use this instead:
C:>net user username password /ADD
where password is the password you want to have. So for instance the above would create an account called 'username', with the password being 'password'. The below would have a username of 'JohnSmith' and a password of 'fruity'
C:>net user JohnSmith fruity /ADD
Right then, now that we can create accounts, let's delete them:)
C:>net user JohnSmith /DELETE
This will delete poor liddle JohnSmith's account. Awww. Do it to you enemies:P no only joking becuase they could have important work... well okay only if you REALLY hate them:)
Let's give you admin priveleges:)
C:>net localgroup administrator JohnSmith /ADD
This will make JohnSmith an admin. Remember that some schools may not call their admins 'adminstrator' and so you need to find out the name of the local group they belong to.
You can list all the localgroups by typing
Running .exe files you can't usually run
In the command prompt, use cd (change directory) to go to where the file is, use DIR to get the name of it, and put a shortcut of it on to a floppy. Run the program off the floppy disk.
Well, I hope this article helped a bit. Please vote for me if you liked it:) Also, please don't go round screwing up your school servers, they are providing them free to you to help your learning.
I will add more as I learn more and remember stuff (I think I've left some stuff out - this article could get very long...)